The goal of this research was to evaluate current data, threat behaviour and attitudes to voluntary counselling and testing regarding HIV/AIDS amongst pregnant women in Semey, Kazakhstan. Their “Women in Cybersecurity” training course is designed to increase the number of women in the area, encouraging them to increase their potential and create position models for future cybersecurity professionals.
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Of our responders 65% (134/206) answered that there are methods to guard oneself towards sexually transmitted HIV/AIDS. Of the women who answered yes to this question, 55% (74/134) specified ways to protect oneself. Note that the women had been allowed to offer multiple means of safety. Regarding from whom the ladies thought they would get help if they were found to be HIV positive, the far most common answer was mother, with fifty one%. Only forty five% thought that they would get help from healthcare personnel, and even fewer, 21%, said they’d get help from their fathers, companions 33% or pals 23%. A comparison between Kazakh and Russian women confirmed that extra Russian women anticipated to get support from moms and companions, whereas Kazakh women more usually talked about associates and healthcare personnel.
The questionnaire was anonymous with no registration of names, medical knowledge or other private info. We have a written choice from the Head of the Ethical Committee at Semey, Kazakhstan that no further moral evaluation is required. With the nameless design and no registration of personal delicate data, the study does not need to be reviewed by the Swedish Ethical Committee based on their rules. No info was collected from the women who refused to participate. The women have been informed that their participation and the completion of the questionnaire have been completely voluntarily and that they were free not to reply the questions they discovered too personal. The info given can be saved confidentially and no names or figuring out data would appear in publications.
In basic women, with larger levels of schooling were better than women with low schooling at accurately excluding and including transmission routes of HIV/AIDS. The variations were kazakh brides vital for “shaking hands/hugging/residing in the identical house”, “changing clothes with somebody who has HIV/AIDS”, “sexual intercourses with condom”, and “sharing needles whereas injecting medicine”.
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Of the 226 women, seventy six.2% (a hundred and seventy/223) have been Kazakh, 18.4% (41/223) Russian, 2.2% (5/223) Tatar, 1.eight% (four/223) German and 1.3% (three/223) others. The three women who did not reply the question about their ethnicity have been excluded once we referred our results to ethnicity. Of the Kazakh women who answered the query about religion, a hundred% were Muslim. Among the Russian women who answered the query about religion, ninety three% had been Christian Orthodox. Of the whole group 79.7% (173/217) were Muslim, 18.9% (forty one/217) Christian Orthodox and 1.four% (three/217) other. No vital affiliation was found between occupation and ethnic origin. When it involves education among the women we check with further file 1.
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Of the entire group 41% (88/215) of the ladies wished to be tested for HIV/AIDS. Fifty-nine p.c (124/211) of the women said they’d tell the healthcare personnel in the event that they had been found to be HIV optimistic, 35% (74/211) that they might tell their mothers and 32% (sixty eight/211) their companions. There was also an inclination for the Russian women to say extra often that they would inform their moms, however the difference was within the margins of error.
In addition to those groups, the epidemic is spreading amongst other susceptible groups like youth, migrants and truck drivers. About three-quarters of the brand new HIV diagnoses is among unemployed people. Currently the 2 primary routes of HIV transmission in Kazakhstan are injecting drug use and sexual transmission. Pregnancy has not been proven to have any adverse effects on women with asymptomatic HIV an infection . It appears that advanced HIV an infection, nonetheless, can increase the danger for spontaneous abortion or premature delivery . The pregnant women in Semey have poor information about particular mother-to-baby HIV transmission and do not know in regards to the technique of lowering mother-to-youngster HIV an infection.
The variety of HIV infected women was estimated to fewer than 500 and of those 47 (9%) received antiretroviral remedy for PMTCT . In Kazakhstan, persons are estimated to stay with HIV/AIDS which means a prevalence of 0.1–zero.2% . The HIV epidemic is strongly concentrated to weak populations, like injecting drug users, intercourse staff and prisoners.
The aim of the study was to evaluate current information, threat behaviour and attitudes to voluntary counselling and testing concerning HIV/AIDS among pregnant women in Semey, Kazakhstan. This is essential, considering that the gateway for prevention of mother-to-youngster transmission is voluntary counselling and testing for HIV. In current years efforts has been made to cowl all pregnant women with full prevention services and the mom-to-youngster prevention is an enormous a part of the Kazakhstan HIV programme . In 2005 the antenatal care protection were estimated to ninety one% and the number of women counselled on prevention of mother-to-child transmission companies have been .
However, many of the women in Semey had been constructive to prevention methods for mom-to-child transmission after hearing about it. We collected 226 questionnaires in a consecutive sample from a inhabitants on 520 pregnant women. Central Asia has one of the rapidly rising HIV prevalence on the planet.
In addition to the questionnaires, we interviewed 21 of the study participants. In all interviews an interpreter was needed; because of this a neighborhood pupil was all the time current to help us to ask questions and to take notes. The questionnaires have been translated to Kazakh and Russian and the ladies were given questionnaires within the language they preferred. The study was carried out between June 14 and July 25, 2007 in Semey, Kazakhstan. We collected 226 questionnaires from a consecutive sample of pregnant women attending 4 completely different antenatal clinics at different components of town. During a year there are round one thousand pregnancies in Semey adopted at 23 antenatal clinics. At the included clinics 520 pregnant women have been registered at the time of the study.
According to a 2013 report, women represented simply eleven% of the global cybersecurity workforce. That number could also be rising, however women are nonetheless woefully underrepresented. Women additionally predominantly work in traditional areas like schooling and hospitality whereas men have greater participation in larger-paying job industries. A significant slice of ladies are self-employed or working in minor managerial jobs inside larger companies.
To the open query relating to the primary way HIV/AIDS is unfold from one person to a different many women gave several answers, the most common being “sexual contact” given by 76% (122/one hundred sixty). The second most common reply was blood transfusion, with 30% (48/160). Nineteen % (30/a hundred and sixty) wrote intravenous drug use/needle sharing and three% (5/a hundred and sixty) wrote they did not know. Russian women considerably extra usually attended Special College (sixty six%; 95% CI fifty one–80%) compared to 35% (ninety five% CI 28–forty one%) for Kazakh women. Kazakh women had a tendency to more often attend University/Institute/Academy.